Thursday, May 14, 2020
Irving Roosevelt Oswald Nicholas Youngston awoke at 6:13 on the morning of June 21st thinking that there could not have be a more beautiful day to die in the history of the world. Indeed, he wondered how anyone on earth would want to be alive after a day such as this. He got out of bed, put on his clothes, brushed his sparkling white teeth with minty toothpaste, brushed his thick, black hair with a comb missing a few teeth, and set off happily along his way, waiting for death to arrive and take him. You may be wondering why Irving was so eager for death at this stage of his life. The truth was Irving didnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite know himself. He had never considered himself the adventurous type, certainly not someone so bold as to just go and die out of the blue, yet recently he had gotten the urge to see what death had in store for him. Anything seemed better than his usual humdrum life, after all. Irving walked into his office building at 8:07, a full 7 minutes later than usual. His latene ss, on account of his newfound, carefree attitude, would normally have caused him to hang his head with shame, but today such an act was laughable. After all, it was his final day in this accursed office, no point in spending it moping just when his life was about to take a new and exciting turn. Irving worked at Shouldwe, Cheatem, and How, a law firm located in the Upper South side of Townsville, Illinois. This might sound like an impressive job for someone so young, but Irving wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t actuallyShow MoreRelatedMovie Review : Star Wars1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfilm-inspired games usually appear the afterthought of the Hollywood marketing process. But Star Wars: the Force Awakens isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a fairly large franchise film, and these are by no means normal circumstances. A little under a month ahead of what could quite possibly be the biggest cinematic release of all time, we fans have not just a shameless tie-in but a fully-fledged reboot of one of the most loved franchises in Star WarsÃ¢â¬â¢ enormous gaming catalogue. And while that may be as much a result of rose-tintedRead More Analysis Of Star Wars Essay961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Analysis Of Star Wars This essay will be analysing the opening sequence of Star Wars. It will be focusing on camera angles, binary opposition and codes and conventions. This film is a typical example of sci-fi, we can tell this by the use of visual codes and convention. The film is set in space and Spaceships are in conflict with each other, there are lazers being fired, robots are running around and there is a clear divide between good and evil. At theRead MoreThe Media Coverage Of Oscar Pistorius Case1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswas under his bed and shot what he thought was an intruder through the bathroom door. Oscar took down the door with the help of a cricket bat, after realising that his girlfriend was not in the room and it might be her in the bathroom not an intruder. Shortly after realising that Oscar had shot his girlfriend, he called an ambulance. Before long, the South African police was also on the scene. He was arrested on the same day of the shooting. On September 12th 2013, the Olympian was charged with culpableRead MoreViolence and Americas Troubled Youth Essays1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin technology have allowed games to present state of the art graphics and surreal like qualities to its consumers; from four star simulated battle scenes to enhanced real live fire shoot outs. With all these innovations added to violent video games it attracted the visual needs of our teenage youth. Although video game vio lence has been blamed for high profile school shootings, video games and its creators should not be held accountable for these tragedies because there is not enough credible evidenceRead MoreHeroes, Heroism Exam Question1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The title Ã¢â¬Å"HeroesÃ¢â¬ immediately highlights heroism as a key theme to the novel, because it is planted into the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s sub-conscious mind, so they identify heroism in everything they read, even if that is not the concept CormierÃ¢â¬â¢s intended to present. Acting as an umbrella term, Ã¢â¬Å"heroesÃ¢â¬ represents the many values associated with heroism, repeated throughout the novel. Some may see it as an overbearing, forced title that Cormier uses to make heroism into the main focus, because he failed to do soRead MoreGames : A Real Sport1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa big gap between USAÃ¢â¬â¢s athletes and othersÃ¢â¬â¢. Contributing to this honor, athletes are the most important reason. With a serious mind f or training and dedicated passion with certain sport, athletes of U.S is always better than the others. Looking through the mirror, in game industry, there are no different between athlete and gamers, or games and sports. First of all, to become a good athlete, passion and hard-word is required. For gamers, absolutely, playing competitive games starts from one ofRead MoreThe Anatomy Of Wit, By John Lyly1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRun away young girl. Go with the boy of your dreams. Everything will be alright even if your father dies of a heart attack and your mother goes insane. Since he is part of our rival family, it might be best if you run away because your act may have an amazing impact. It can bring the two families together. After all, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything fair in love and war? If only that was true. A classic proverb in poetry, novels, and movies, it seems to be just a fantasy. Having to injure or kill someone for anotherÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreFriday Night Lights : A Town, A Team, And A Dream1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe book begins with the author talking about his motivation to write the book. Also the author discusses the importance of PermianÃ¢â¬â¢s game against Midland Lee High School (th eir arch-rivals). Tensions were rising greatly, and by the end of the game, star tailback Boobie Miles quits the team and Permian lost 22-21, leaving them in a three-way tie, with only two spots open in the 5A playoffs. The initial chapters discuss the town of Odessa and its history, unique facts, its people, etc. One of the majorRead MoreFood Photography Essay1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMedia, Authenticity Reigns. Tabletop food directors (and some photographers) use tricks like steam machines, acrylic ice cubes that never melt and motion-control rigs that can send a donut tumbling through a wall of sugar to make food look as mouthwatering as possible. Food stylists might sift through 50 or 100 hamburger buns, chicken wings or crab legs to find a few that are camera-ready. This is fine for a quarterly or monthly special with a long timeline and large TV marketing budget behind itRead MoreSupreme Court Essay906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesor a windbreaker. As we walked, I could spot the building from a distance first noticing the big carvings that read, Ã¢â¬Å"The Supreme Court Of OhioÃ¢â¬ . The primeval building had a beautiful interior design with pure marble walls with noise bouncing off through the building with a staccato rhythm. The whole building was made from marble mined and brought to the construction site by workers. Walking deeper into the building, we had to get checked by security in order to keep the people in the building safer
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Slave Narratives Juan Sanchez HIST 221: African American History before 1877 Professor Craig Cook July 25, 2015 Slavery has always been viewed as one of the most scandalous times in American history. It may seem that the entire institution of slavery has been categorized as white masters torturing defenseless African Americans. However, not every slave has encountered this experience. In this essay I will focus on the life of two former slaves Harriet Smith and Mr. George Johnson and how in some cases their experience were similar as well as different in other aspects. The negative aspects of slave life were unquestionably heinous and for that reason especially, it is also important to also reveal the lives of slaves whom were treated fairly and with respect. Harriet Smith was interviewed by John Henry Faulk in 1941. Harriet Smith was born into slavery and had no knowledge of her actual age. Smith describes her experience as a slave without receiving any beatings and with a master that treated her and all the other slaves they owned very well. HarrietÃ¢â¬â¢s master allowed his slaves to ride his horses to church and while on the plantation. Harriet Smith stated during the interview that she was a great horseback rider as were some of the other slaves. Although she was treated well, she was unable to learn how to read and write just like most of the slaves. Smith worked plowing fields and laying corn, she also picked cotton and stated that she was able toShow MoreRelatedReconstruction Of The Civil War1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReconstruction was one of the most important periods in American history. It was a period right after the Civil War lasting from approximately from 1863 to 1877. During this time, the leaders of the country and t he congress struggled with a challenge of bringing the South back into the Union politically, economically and socially. One of the key challenges they faced was how to reunite the nation and what to do with the thirteen rebellious states that broke off from the Union and joined the ConfederacyRead MoreDifferences Between Virginia And Virginia754 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Virginia has differences and similarities when it comes to slave narratives. To explain further Virginia was the first in English history to become the royal colony. However, this is why the details and experiences that these ex-slaves gave in describing the institution of slavery and the practice of slavery were tremendously important the English kings that were always occupied. Virginia House in the late 1630 s was highly recognized. Sir William Berkeley became governor in 1941, theRead MoreAfrican People s Fight For Independence And Racial Equality Essay1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNelson Mandela, was at the forefront of the South African people s fight for independence and racial equality and was the first South African president to be elected democratically. To begin with Racism has always been around since the beginning of time, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a very human natured flaw to judge on whether you are a different color or even in the way you act or present yourself in society. Far back dated racism first began when the modern slave trade was brought around the world. In Greece and inRead More Incidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl Essay1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIncidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. L. Maria Child, a prominent white abolitionist, agreed to edit Jacobs book, although she apparently did little to alter the text except to rearrange some sections, suggest the removal of one chapter, and add material to another. In a letter to a friend, Child wrote, I abridged, and struck out superfluous words sometimes; but I dont think I altered fifty words in the whole volume. The subject matter of the book -- sexual abuse of slave women -- was tabooRead MoreSkin Differentiation Within The African American Community1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDifferentiation Within the African American Community Ebony S. Jackson HIST 221: African American History before 1877 American Public University Loni Bramson Skin Differentiation Within the African American Community It seems like modern day African Americans are constantly haunted by their past. There are sayings that African Americans do not have a direct cultural connect to their initial West African roots. Different factors, which resulted from enslavement of Africans during the colonialRead More African American Life Before and After Emancipation Essay3919 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesAfrican American Life Before and After Emancipation Slavery was an intrinsic part of North American history from the founding of the Jamestown colony in 1607 to the legal abolition of servitude in 1865. But our nation continues to grapple with the economic, political, social, and cultural impact of that peculiar institution to this day. Over seventy years after the end of the Civil War, the WPA Federal WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Project sought to understand the impact which slavery had on theRead MoreEssay on Jazz Ken Burns1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGift (1917-1924), explain the early growth of jazz as it originates in New Orleans and its expands to Chicago and New York during the Jazz Age. In assessing the first two episodes of Ken Burns 2001 documentary, JAZZ, this essay will explore the history of jazz, the musics racial implications, and its impact on society. In doing so, attention will also be given to the structure of the documentary, and the effectiveness of documentary film in retelling the past. In the first episodeRead MoreThe Reconstruction Period from 1865 to 1877 Essay1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrom 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent an era of political complexity and social turbulence known as Reconstruction (Tindell). This period of American history generated extensive implications for life of Americans (Tindell). The main goal of the Reconstruction was to rebuild a devasted South after the abolition of slavery, disruptions of the economy due to the war, and the tremendous amounts of deaths left it in near ruins (Tindell). The first question at hand was to decide which governmentsRead MoreDocumentary Film Analysis Worksheet2403 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Documentary Film Analysis Worksheet History 221 Ã¢â¬â African American History Before 1877 Instructions: You will find the list of films you can choose from in the Assignment tab. Go to the list and pick your film. You must view the entire film. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t access films because of deployment, geographic location, or other reasons, please let your instructor know so they can give you an alternate assignment. Please type you answers into this sheet. You must submit the worksheet by uploading theRead MoreThe Historical Progression of African Americans4523 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesProgression of African Americans Jeff Brown HIS 204: American History Since 1865 Prof Carl Garrigus May 16, 2010 The Historical Progression of African Americans America in 1857 was a Ã¢â¬Å"Nation on the Brink.Ã¢â¬ Relationships between the Northern and Southern states had been strained for decades. During the 1850 s, the situation exploded. The Compromise of 1850 served as a clear warning that the slavery issueÃ¢â¬ârelatively dormant since the Missouri Compromise of 1820Ã¢â¬âhad returned. African Americans
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Report for Advances in Computing. Answer: Introduction: Bayesian Model Selection Framework for Identifying Growth Patterns in Filamentous Fungi The models for the description of different stages of development of fungi were understood in this paper. The authors have helped me to understand the method for quantification of modeling error regarding the various models that exist for predicting the growth pattern for filamentous fungi. I have understood that the errors in the mathematical modeling arise due to uncertain colony architecture and various cellular signals, which depends upon the various environmental factors. Since there exists a gap between the modeling and reality, a unified computational framework based upon Bayesian have been developed and understood for quantification of the modeling errors and ranks were assigned to the models based on performance. Further, it was well understood that the Bayesian model is the mathematical extension of Occams razor. The paper has developed a systematic framework for comparison of the model uncertainties based on Bayesian model. Since the Bayesian model compares the real data and the data from the different models, I can use the difference between the ideal result and the real result to understand the model flaws. Apart from determination of model flaws, the work will also empower the students with the knowledge of models parameters for selection of better models. This comparison of the models will help in the achievement of the tradeoff between the data fitness and the complexity of the model. The comparison will not only help me in calibration of the models but will also help as a guiding tool for further research and refinements. This model will assist the students and researcher to understand the existing models better and will help in the construction of the better complete model in future. Reference Gelman, A. and Shalizi, C.R., 2013. Philosophy and the practice of Bayesian statistics.British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology,66(1), pp.8-38. Klipp, E., Liebermeister, W., Wierling, C., Kowald, A. and Herwig, R., 2016.Systems biology: a textbook. John Wiley Sons. Lin, X., Terejanu, G., Shrestha, S., Banerjee, S. and Chanda, A., 2016. Bayesian model selection framework for identifying growth patterns in filamentous fungi.Journal of theoretical biology,398, pp.85-95.
Wednesday, April 8, 2020
Average SAT Scores Over Time 1972 - 2018 SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips SAT scores for the past few years have shown a marked decline, particularly since 2006, which can be attributed to various causes. In this article, we provide you with some charts showing the average SAT trends from 1972 to 2018 as well as the variation in SAT scores by ethnicity. Average SAT Scores for Past Years: 1972-2018 First off, here is a chart of the SAT averagesfrom 1972 to 2018 so that you can see the overall trends in SAT scores throughout the years. All data is taken from the 2016 College Board Total Group Profile Report, the 2017 report, and the 2018 report. Year Math Critical Reading Writing Year Math Critical Reading Writing 1972 509 530 - 1996 508 505 - 1973 506 523 - 1997 5 505 - 1974 505 521 - 1998 512 505 - 1975 498 512 - 1999 5 505 - 1976 497 509 - 2000 514 505 - 1977 496 507 - 2001 514 506 - 1978 494 507 - 2002 516 504 - 1979 493 505 - 2003 519 507 - 1980 492 502 - 2004 518 508 - 1981 492 502 - 2005 520 508 - 1982 493 504 - 2006 518 503 497 1983 494 503 - 2007 514 501 493 1984 497 504 - 2008 514 500 493 1985 500 509 - 2009 514 499 492 1986 500 509 - 2010 515 500 491 1987 501 507 - 20 514 497 489 1988 501 505 - 2012 514 496 488 1989 502 504 - 2013 514 496 488 1990 501 500 - 2014 513 497 487 1991 500 499 - 2015 5 495 484 1992 501 500 - 2016 508 494 482 1993 503 500 - 2017* 527 533 1994 504 499 - 2018* 531 536 1995 506 504 - - - - *The old SAT had three main sections: Math, Critical Reading, and Writing. Since theSAT's massive redesign in spring 2016, there are now two main sections on the test: Math and Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW), the latter of which is a combination of the Reading and Writing sections. Now, here's historical SAT test data for different ethnicities. The scores below are the combined mean scores for the Critical Reading and Math sections (for 2017 and 2018, scores shown are the means for the EBRW and Math sections combined). Demographic of Test Takers 2007 Scores 20 Scores 2015 Scores 2016 Scores* 2017 Scores* 2018 Scores* American Indian or Alaskan Native 981 972 963 939 963 914 Asian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander 1092 12 23 31 (Asian American) 870 (Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander) 81 (Asian) 986 (Native Hawaiian/ Other Pacific Islander) 52 (Asian) 948 (Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander) Black or African American 862 855 859 855 941 919 Mexican or Mexican American 921 917 905 - - - Puerto Rican 913 904 905 - - - Other Hispanic, Latino, or Latin American 922 913 906 901 (All Hispanic, Latino, and Latin American) 990 (Hispanic/ Latino) 1005 (Hispanic/Latino) White 1061 1063 1063 1061 18 1077 Other 1009 1010 1009 1015 03 (Two or More Races) 1044 (Two or More Races) No Response 977 944 926 952 961 875 Sources: 2007 Report,20 Report, 2015 Report, 2016 Report, 2017 Report, 2018 Report *Note the changes in ethnic categories for the 2016-2018 reports. SAT Score Trends: Discussing the Numbers What the SAT charts above show us is that the scores vary greatly depending on how the College Board structures the test and organizes its scoring. The years of study thata student engages in matter. The more years of secondary education someone has completed, the better her average score on the SAT will be. Higher GPA also correlates with higher SAT scores. Generally, Critical Reading (now called Reading on theredesignedSAT) has taken an overall decline, whereas the Math score has risen slightly over time. There are of course small fluctuations throughout the years, but the overall trend is clear. There are also notable gaps in the performances of students from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups that show no signs of closing. ACT scores, unlike SAT scores, have remained relatively more stable over the past several years. Though they, too, have shown similar variations in numbers, it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been as bad as the SAT numbers. On the other hand, they do show differences based on the ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds of the test takers. Due to the nature of the test or due to different demographic profiles among test takers, from 2006 to 2016 overall average SAT scores fell a total of 34 points, down in each of the three sections tested. (You'll notice a sharp increase in section scores in 2017, but this is partly due to the SAT's massive redesign; thus, we won't be able to use these scores for our comparison until more years use the redesigned SAT format.) According to the demographics table, from 2007 to 2015 the average scores for white students stayed about the same. Similarly, mostother groups witnessed no change or decreases from 2007 to 2015. Asian Americans experiencedthe biggest positive change of all groups during this time frame: a staggering 31-point increase in mean Critical Reading/Math scores. (Note, though, that before 2016, Asian Americans were combined with Pacific Islanders.) Access to quality education, not ethnicity, might explain a significant portion of the racial gap. This can includevariations based on whether the student completed a core curriculum or not, and whether they had access to SAT prep. In 2014-2017, more students took the ACT than the SAT; this trend reversed in 2018, with over 2.1 million students taking the SAT (compared to 1.9 million who took the ACT during that same time period). Many students believe that the SAT doesn't accurately reflect what is taught in schools today. The decision to institute changes to the SAT in 2016 may have beendue to this disparity between what is taught and what is tested; it could also have beendue to the loss of market shares to the ACT. Critics say that the SAT measures a student's background and access to resources (including test prep) more than it predicts a student's likelihood of success at the college level. Actually, those two points might correlate because the students that receive this sort of help are also more likely to receive the support they need in college from their families. While itÃ¢â¬â¢s true there is variation in scores with respect to race and income, it is still something that can be overcome by the student with both dedication and practice. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Struggling with a low SAT score? Check out our series of articles on the how to improve your scores on the SATMath, Reading, and Writingsections. Shooting high on the SAT? Check out our series on how to get perfect scores on the SAT Math, Reading, and Writingsections,written by a perfect scorer. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today!
Monday, March 9, 2020
Military Funeral Honors in the US Navy I am currently working for the US Navy, and I am in charge of conducting military funeral honors. My main task is referred to as passing of the flag. This is a very demanding job, but fortunately, two persons can accomplish it. There are many military funerals and thus I cannot manage to attend all of them. That is why I need to delegate my authority to someone else. This implies that the task of passing the flag is possible, just as if I was physically present.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Military Funeral Honors in the US Navy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lewis et al. (2007, p.198) argue that the task delegation cannot be successful without clear instructions that explain the manner in which to execute the task. It is in this regard that I have considered documenting the task because it will help in preventing any faults. This is because I am the one expected to account for all happenings encountered in the task and hence, I cannot hold the delegated person accountable. I have therefore created a framework for the person that receives my authority to dictate the appropriate time and manner of executing the task. I have decided to explain to the person to whom I am delegating this task to the importance of this initiative. The benefits are to be experienced by three entities, that is, this other person and the organization in general, and myself. First, delegation will slash my workload and therefore I will not feel overwhelmed because the tasks will be more manageable and I will focus on the most crucial tasks such as planning for flag passing sessions. In this light, the most obvious benefit is the monetary reward, which varies depending on the volunteerÃ¢â¬â¢s position. The person to whom authority will be delegated will get an opportunity to exercise his/her skills and abilities and he/she could be my successor when I retire. Saleem (2007, p.1) explains that executing this task on my behalf will provide the other person with the relevant training that will be needed in future for him/her to serve in this position. Moreover, volunteering in this position will yield points, which will be credited into his /her retirement scheme and thus, increase his/her income at that time. Similarly, I will explain to the person to whom I am delegating this task to how I will measure his/her performance and be in a position to tell whether the quality of his/her performance was satisfactory. I will set the goals for this task as recommended by Portny (2010, p.134) and thereafter, refer to them when gauging his/her performance.Advertising Looking for essay on homeland security? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I expect his/her output to be slightly higher than mine because he/she will not be handling the entire tasks single handedly, as I did previously. Should I get any complains from my superiors I will assum e his/her output is below average and at that juncture, I will have to go back to the drawing board. The person to whom I intend to delegate this task to is very competent because he/she is drawn from the US navy and therefore is familiar with the forceÃ¢â¬â¢s obligations and thus, knows what is expected of him/her. This implies that I will not have to train this person concerning this task of passing the flag. However, I will evaluate his/her performance in her/his present position so that I can be certain about his/her reliability. This is because this person cannot be expected to deliver an outstanding performance if he/she has failed to do the same in her/his present position. The spirit of volunteering when the need arises especially when we are engaged in a war motivates every officer in the US navy. However, I have a good working relationship with the person receiving may authority, which is based on mutual respect. Besides, if there are any faults in the task there are har dly any monetary costs. There can only be human expenses because this service is usually rendered before the bereaved family commences with grieving (Department of Defense, 2011). Furthermore, I will be able to supervise the performance of this person because in most situations, I am usually present but hardly noticed because I only come in when there is a fault that needs to be corrected. The faults will be corrected swiftly so that the organization does not feel the pinch of accumulated liabilities. In fact, I do not need to consult my boss regarding this initiative. This is because my superior knows that I am a responsible person and our code of ethics has granted me the power of task delegation. If the person performs well, this task will be his/her bridge for advancing his/her career in the US navy. He/she is most likely to be promoted to the position of funeral honor coordinator. The position entails dictating how the honors will be conducted. Moreover, this position involves giving messages of condolences to the bereaved family on behalf of the deceased officerÃ¢â¬â¢s branch. I will delegate this task without fear because all officers are trained to be flexible and thus, they are able to work in any position and deliver the desired results. References Department of Defense (2011). Military Funeral Honors. Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Military Funeral Honors in the US Navy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lewis, P. S., Goodman, S. H., Fandt, P. M., Michlitsch, J. F. (2007). Management: Challenges for Tomorrows Leaders (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Portny, E. S. (2010). Project Management for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing Inc. Saleem, H. (2007, June 23). How to Delegate Effectively. Directory Journal. Retrieved from https://www.dirjournal.com/blogs/how-to-delegate-effectively/
Friday, February 21, 2020
A Critical Examination of the Documentary Hypothesis - Essay Example This latter view forms the core of the Documentation Hypothesis.The Documentation Hypothesis proposes that the Pentateuch is a composite work consisting of four literary strands. The four strands have been assigned the letters J, E, D, and P; each representing a different document or source that was woven into the fabric of the Bible. This set of assumptions is also known as the Graf-Wellhausen theory. According to this view, the letter "J" stands for the Yahwist ("J" from the German Jahweh) Narrative, coming from the period of the early Jewish monarchy, about 950 B.C. "E" stands for the Elohist Narrative from the region of the Northern Kingdom dating from about 750 B.C. "D" is best represented by the book of Deuteronomy and is said to have originated in the Southern Kingdom about 650 B.C. or later. And finally, "P" is the Priestly Document that comes from the period after the fall of Israel in 587 B.C. According to the theory, the Pentateuch reached its current form around the time of Ezra or about 400 B.C. (Closson)The conservative view holds to Mosaic authorship and treats the books as a literary unit. This does not mean that Moses did not use other documents to write the books. ... This established the first principle of what is now known as the Documentary Hypothesis, the assumption that different divine names must mean different authors or sources. In 1780 Johann Eichhorn applied the idea of two sources to the rest of Genesis, Exodus, and finally to most of the Pentateuch. He gave up on the belief of Mosaic authorship as well. (Closson) In 1805, Wilhem De Wette argued that none of the Pentateuch was written before David. He established the "D" document standing for Deuteronomy, which he believed was written as propaganda to support political and religious unification in Jerusalem during the reign of King Josiah around 621 B.C. The "P" or Priestly Document of the current theory was added by Hermann Hupfeld in 1853. He believed that the E source should be split in two, the later becoming the new P document. The name most associated with the documentary hypothesis is Julius Wellhausen. His publications in the late 1870's argued from a Darwinistic perspective. (Closson) Counter Arguments Against Documentation Hypothesis The following are the defenses against the Documentation Hypothesis. In essence, according to Archer (105-110), the Documentary Hypothesis banished Moses into the illiterate mists of oral tradition. Archer pointed out that in the Hypothesis, the text of the Torah or Pentateuch is used as evidence but consistently evaded whenever it happens to contradict the Hypothesis itself. Further, sarcastically, according to Archer, the documentarians likewise assume that Hebrew authors differ from any other writers known in the history of literature in that they alone were incapable of using more than one name for God; more than one style of writing, no matter what the difference in subject matter is;
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Ss310 unit 8 - Research Paper Example hat grew out of the Great Society initiative can most succinctly be concentrated to those dealing with poverty and the level of racial equality within the United States. As such, it is without a doubt that the level of racial equality since JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s time has improved greatly. This of course does not mean that ours is a society without any racial conflict; however, great strides have been made to include the use and application of affirmative and a host of others. With respect to poverty and its representation within the American society, the same cannot be said. If one measures the overall level of poverty that existed during the Johnson administration as compared to the overall level of poverty for each proceeding decade, the trend is saddening. This is due to a host of economic factors and cannot ultimately be attributed to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure or success in implementation of the Great Society; however, it is indicative of the level of success that such a program has experienced. As such, it is the opinion of this student that taken as an aggregate, the overall success of the Great Society would be a solid C to C-. This is due to the fact that although great strides have been made with regards to racial equality as a function of government programs, directives, and legislation, the level of poverty itself has not shrunk and in many ways has grown to encompass an even larger segment of American society. With regards to the level of faith that this student has with regards to whether Social Security and/or Medicaid will be available during my entire lifetime, the answer to this question is that I have little if any faith that these programs will be there for the entirety of my life. The reason for this is the level of short-sightedness with which successive Congresses and presidents have dealt with this issue. Moreover, as each successive administration promises to ensure that these programs continue to exist well into the future, the fact of the